Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: fugacity, fugacity coefficient, compressibility factor, activity.
Solution thermodynamics: Ideal and non-ideal gas mixtures and liquid solutions, partial molar properties, physical significance and determination methods, chemical potential.
Gibbs-Duhem equation: general form, various forms of Gibbs-Duhem equation, applications, limitations; Property changes of mixing, excess properties.
Criteria of phase equilibrium, Duhem theorem. Vapour liquid equilibrium, VLE equation, low pressure VLE, Phase diagrams for binary solution, T-x-y and P-x-y diagrams. Effect of pressure on VLE. Azeotropes and its types.
Activity coefficient; equations used for the determination, Margules, van Laar, Wilson equations, VLE at high pressures, bubble point, dew point calculations, Thermodynamic consistency tests for VLE data.
Chemical reaction equilibrium; criteria of equilibrium, Reaction stoichiometry, equilibrium constant, Gibbs free energy change, choice of standard state, feasibility of chemical reactions, effect of temperature on equilibrium constant, evaluation of van’t Hoff constant, Effect of parameters like temperature, pressure, composition on the equilibrium conversion.